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Table 4 Variables distinguishing between Minority non-problem gamblers (n = 494) and Minority at-risk problem gamblers (n = 338)

From: Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

  SE OR 95% CI
Age (continuous)* 0.01 0.98 0.97–1.00
Gender (female) 0.20 0.68 0.74–1.60
Friends and family gamble*** 0.19 2.95 2.04–4.26
Overall stress level in the past year
Low (ref.)
Moderate 0.24 1.29 0.81–2.05
High 0.39 1.08 0.50–2.31
Relationship status
Married (ref.)
Divorced, separated, or widowed 0.31 1.02 0.56–1.88
Single 0.22 0.86 0.56–1.32
Tobacco use 0.21 1.42 0.96–2.16
Binge drinking 0.22 1.33 0.87–2.03
Illegal drug use 0.27 1.58 0.90–2.59
Behavioral addictions** 0.28 2.16 1.26–3.86
Suicidal ideation in the past year 0.61 1.61 0.46–5.20
Gambling frequency low (ref.)
Medium*** 0.28 3.60 2.08–6.24
High*** 0.27 4.53 2.67–7.70
Gambling venue
Land-based only (ref.)
Online and land-based 0.24 1.53 0.96–2.44
Online only* 0.38 2.47 1.17–5.21
Instant scratch-off* 0.22 1.63 1.06–2.50
Bingo 0.25 1.54 0.95–2.49
Sports betting 0.28 1.63 0.95–2.81
Live casino table games 0.26 1.56 0.95–2.58
Gaming machines* 0.22 1.55 1.02–2.36
  1. p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001