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Table 3 Variables distinguishing between White non-problem gamblers (n = 1016) and White at-risk gamblers (n = 325)

From: Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

  SE OR 95% CI
Age (continuous)*** 0.01 0.98 0.97–0.99
Gender (female)* 0.17 1.44 1.03–2.02
Friends and family gamble*** 0.17 2.28 1.64–3.18
Health status for the last year
Excellent (ref.)
Fair** 0.31 2.69 1.46–4.94
Poor* 0.25 1.64 1.00–2.69
Tobacco use** 0.18 1.73 1.22–2.44
Alcohol use 0.21 0.20 0.50–1.15
Binge drinking 0.21 1.50 0.99–2.26
Problems with drugs or alcohol* 0.51 2.77 1.03–7.47
Behavioral addictions** 0.23 1.84 1.16–2.91
Gambling frequency
Low (ref.)
Medium* 0.23 1.70 1.08–2.68
High*** 0.22 2.80 1.83–4.29
Gambling venue
Land-based only (ref.)
Online and land-based*** 0.23 2.74 1.76–4.26
Online only** 0.33 2.55 1.35–4.81
Instant scratch-off*** 0.20 2.72 1.83–4.04
Sports betting** 0.28 2.35 1.36–4.05
Horse race track 0.25 .66 0.40–1.08
Live casino table games* 0.21 1.65 1.10–2.47
Other games of skill* 0.24 1.75 1.09–2.81
Gaming machines* 0.18 1.59 1.12–2.27
  1. p ≤ .05; ** p ≤ .01; *** p ≤ .001