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Table 1 Unique determinant of problem behaviour approach

From: A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

Authors Aim and program design Participants Findings
Ferland et al. (2002) Examined a video-based educational program to correct misconceptions and cognitive errors on gambling such as differences between gambling and skill, chances of winning, illusion of control, randomness and winning strategies. N = 424 students in age range from 11 to 15 years old
Conditions: (1) video only; (2) information only; (3) information and video; (4) control
A significant reduction of misconceptions, F(3, 416) = 8.56, p < 0.0001, and knowledge errors, F(3, 416) = 8.86, p < 0.0001, reported in all treatment groups compared to the control group
Most reduction in misconceptions reported in the information and video condition groups
Ladouceur et al. (2003) Examined a preventive exercises on correcting gambling misconceptions and made comparison with the Count Me Out gambling awareness program
Three exercises: (1) “The Draw” activity focused on illustration of independence of events in gambling and the concept of chance; (2) “The Dice Game” demonstrated that one cannot control the results of gambling; (3) The “Lottery” activity emphasized that no one can control chance
First phase of study, N = 153 students from grade 5 and 6, divided into treatment and control group
Second phase of the study, N = 509 students from the same grades, conditions: (1) Count me out administered by specialist (C-S); (2) Count me out administered by a teacher (C-T); (3) Preventive exercises designed and administered by specialist (E-S)
In the first study, a significant reduction in erroneous perception reported in the treatment group compared to the control group, F(1, 151) = 13.90; p < .05
In the second study, E-S condition reported significant reduction of misconceptions compared to C-T and C-S conditions, F (2,346) = 3.83; p < .05
Program administered by the specialist produced better outcomes compared to program administered by the teacher (p < .05)
Preventive exercises designed by the specialist were found more efficient compared to the exercises from the Count Me Out program (p < .05)
Ladouceur et al. (2004) Examined an English translated video-based educational program to correct misconceptions and improve knowledge about gambling N = 506 students from grade 7 and 8 divided into treatment and control group Significant improvement on knowledge and reduction in misconceptions about gambling reported in the treatment group
Lavoie and Ladouceur (2004) Examined a video-based educational program to modifying attitudes towards gambling and improving knowledge on gambling such as misconceptions, cognitive errors and illusion of control N = 273 French-speaking students in grade 5 and 6
Conditions: (1) Discussion + Video; (2) Video-only; (3) Control
Significant increase in gambling knowledge, F(2.266) = 7.25, p < .005, and decreases in erroneous attitudes, F(2.267) = 7.05, p < .005, reported in both treatment groups
No significant differences found between the two treatment groups
Ladouceur et al. (2005) Examined a video-based educational program to improve gambling knowledge and correct gambling misconceptions N = 568 from grade 11–12 from three high schools, divided into treatment and control group Significant improvement in specific knowledge on excessive gambling, F(1,493) = 18.06; P < .0001, and decrease stereotypes towards excessive gamblers, F(1,481) = 24.36; P < .0001, reported in treatment group
Williams and Connolly (2006) Examined a class educational program to decrease gambling behaviour by improving statistical knowledge such as descriptive statistics, probability, estimation, and the central limit theorem N = 470 university students
Conditions: (1) Probability Theory + Gambling Examples; (2) Generic instruction on Probability; (3) Control
Significant increase in statistical knowledge, F(2, 330) = 25.4, p < .01, and resistance to gambling fallacies, F(2, 330) = 3.2, p = .05, reported in treatment groups
Reported no significant reduction in gambling behaviour
Korn et al. (2006) Examined the usability internet-based prevention program through games, information and help resources
Program includes time management, general risk perception, money management, decision making, principles of randomness, self-assessment, negative consequences minimization, and gambling treatment resources
N = 34 youths were interviewed Youths reported that they liked the information, interface and interactivity of the website, felt that the content were appropriate and appealing, increased knowledge and awareness about gambling, and know where to seek help for gambling related issues
Taylor and Hillyard (2009) Examined a gambling awareness prevention program “Don’t Gamble Away Our Future” to improve gambling awareness and knowledge N = 8455 students from primary, junior high and high school
Parents were invited for presentations and given information packet
Significant change in gambling misconceptions reported in post-test, t (8,454) = − 50.89, p = .000
Walther et al. (2013) Examined a school-based media education program on gambling knowledge, attitudes and behaviors
Program: 90-min program about gambling fallacies, discussion about warning signs of pathological gambling and role play exercise on gambling features
N = 2109 students in grade 6 and 7 from 80 schools, divided into treatment and control group Significant increase in gambling knowledge (d = 0.18), decrease in problematic gambling attitudes (d = 0.15) and current gambling behavior (d = 0.02)
No significant effect on lifetime gambling
Todirita and Lupu (2013) Compared primary prevention program with rational emotive education (REE) on children’s gambling knowledge
Primary prevention program focused on illusion of control, attitudes and cognitive errors in gambling
REE focused on problem-solving techniques and improving emotional strength
N = 81 children of age 12–13
Conditions: (1) Primary Prevention; (2) REE; (3) Control
Significant improvement reported in gambling knowledge in both treatment groups, F(2, 77) = 23.33, p < .001
Primary prevention was more efficient than REE, F(2, 78) = 21.97, p < .001, in changing misconceptions about games
Lupu and Lupu (2013) Compared effectiveness of primary prevention program and REE
Primary prevention program focused on restructuring gambling misconceptions
REE focused on understanding cognitive and behavior ABC model to gambling
N = 75 teenagers from grade 6
Conditions: (1) Control; (2) REE; (3) Primary prevention and REE
Significant change in erroneous cognitions about gambling reported in treatment group that was exposed to primary prevention program and REE, F(2, 72) = 33.54, p = .000, changes maintained and lasted for at least 12 months
Donati et al. (2014) Examined a school-based educational program to prevent adolescent PG focusing on gambling knowledge and misconceptions, economic gambling perception and superstitious thinking N = 181, mean age = 15.95 Significant improvement in gambling knowledge, F(1,145) = 12.62, p < .01, and economic perception, F(1,143) = 7.16, p < .01, in reported treatment group
Significant reduction in gambling misconceptions, F(1,145) = 10.84, p < .01, and superstitious thinking, F(1,141) = 5.48, p < .05 reported in treatment group
Findings were stable over time and small significant gambling behavioural change were reported, χ 2 (1, N = 83) = 2.34, p < .05