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Table 2 Association between problematic Internet use and psychological distress, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioural correlates (n = 573)

From: Prevalence and risk factors of problematic internet use and the associated psychological distress among graduate students of Bangladesh

Explanatory variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI] OR [95% CI]
Problematic Internet use
 No [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.63 [1.77, 3.90] 2.48 [1.65, 3.72] 2.37 [1.57, 3.58]
Age (years)
 20–25 [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 26–30 0.84 [0.59, 1.20] 0.79 [0.55, 1.15] 0.78 [0.53, 1.14]
Sex
 Female [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Male 1.44 [0.98, 2.12] 1.14 [0.74, 1.74] 0.99 [0.63, 1.55]
Socioeconomic status
 High [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Middle 1.60 [1.02, 2.53] 1.59 [1.00, 2.54] 1.62 [1.01, 2.61]
 Low 2.55 [1.43, 4.55] 2.21 [1.22, 4.02] 2.45 [1.33, 4.50]
Relationship status
 Single [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Partnered 1.02 [0.70, 1.50] 1.07 [0.72, 1.60] 1.02 [0.68, 1.54]
 Separated 1.24 [0.76, 2.03] 1.16 [0.70, 1.93] 1.07 [0.64, 1.80]
Living arrangement
 With family [ref.] 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Dorm/mess 1.22 [0.83, 1.79] 1.22 [0.81, 1.84] 1.25 [0.83, 1.89]
Smoking
 No [ref.] 1.00   1.00
 Yes 1.87 [1.23, 2.84]   1.86 [1.17, 2.96]
Physical activity
 No [ref.] 1.00   1.00
 Yes .85 [0.58, 1.20]   0.84 [0.58, 1.21]
Sleep duration
 Normal sleep [ref.] 1.00   1.00
 Short sleep 0.81 [0.55, 1.20]   0.84 [0.56, 1.26]
 Long sleep 1.89 [0.83, 4.33]   1.88 [0.79, 4.48]
  1. The ORs in italics indicate statistical significance
  2. Model 1: unadjusted
  3. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, relationship status, and living arrangement
  4. Model 3: adjusted for model 2 + smoking, physical activity, and sleep duration
  5. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval