Skip to main content

Table 1 Means, standard deviations, alpha coefficients, and correlations among the study variables

From: Role of smartphone addiction in gambling passion and schoolwork engagement: a Dualistic Model of Passion approach

Variable M SD 1 2 3 4 5
1. Age 22.39 3.30     
2. Harmonious passion 28.14 2.87 −.23*** (.84)    
3. Obsessive passion 8.27 2.55 −.10 .11 (.84)   
4. Smartphone addiction 18.55 4.02 −.13* .06 .27*** (.76)  
5. Schoolwork engagement 46.09 3.30 −.06 .18** −.11 −.19*** (.77)
  1. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the scales are on the diagonal of the matrix in parentheses
  2. N = 278, * p < .05 (two-tailed); ** p < .01 (two-tailed); *** p < .001 (two-tailed)