Skip to main content

Table 2 Multi-model correlations between risk and protective factors for unhealthy gambling behaviour

From: Adolescent gambling behaviour, a single latent construct and indicators of risk: findings from a national survey of New Zealand high school students

Item/variable associated with increased risk of unhealthy gambling Model 1
Estimate (Standard error)*
Model 2
Estimate (Standard error)*
Demographics   
Age (younger vs. older) −0.092 (0.065)
Sex (male vs. female) 0.580 (0.187)*
Māori (vs. European) 0.227 (0.177)
Pacific (vs. European) 0.736 (0.282)*
Asian (vs. European) 0.535 (0.288)
Living in neighbourhood with higher levels of deprivation (vs. lower levels of deprivation) 0.044 (0.032)
Risk factors   
Usually earns $100 or more per week 0.387 (0.111)* 0.322 (0.150)*
Gamble because   
 My friends gamble 1.436 (0.122)* 1.130 (0.231)*
 My family gamble 1.53 (0.13)* 1.161 (0.237)*
Have gambled on   
 Bingo 1.102 (0.133)* 0.402 (0.296)
 Pub/club EGMs 0.972 (0.118)* 0.199 (0.269)
 Casino (EGMs or tables) 1.514 (0.158)* 0.939 (0.339)*
 Internet 1.32 (0.114)* 0.864 (0.256)*
 Phone 1.637 (0.18)* 0.548 (0.474)
Satisfied depression criteria 0.496 (0.128)* 0.261 (0.266)
Drinks alcohol on a weekly basis 0.649 (0.078)* 0.246 (0.175)
Protective factors   
Connectedness to family −0.245 (0.052)* 0.068 (0.103)
Connectedness to friends −0.33 (0.038)* −0.053 (0.103)
Connectedness to school −0.412 (0.077)* −0.326 (0.137)*
  1. * Item/variable significant at p ≤ 0.01
  2. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation (NZDep2006)