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Table 2 Multiple logistic regression showing odds ratios (with 95 % CI) of having gambled and being identified as problem gambler adjusted for age, gender, hearing loss and socio-demographic variables

From: Gambling among adolescents with and without hearing loss

  n Gambling Problem gambling
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Age      
 Grade 9 2144 1.0   1.0  
 Year 2 2185 1.4** (1.2–1.6) 1.7** (1.2–2.3)
Gender      
 Male 2182 1.0   1.0  
 Female 2147 0.3** (0.2–0.3) 0.2** (0.1–0.2)
Hearing loss      
 Without HL 4014 1.0   1.0  
 With HL 315 1.5** (1.2–2.0) 1.5 (0.9–2.3)
Parents’ employment      
 Yes, both work 3256 1.0   1.0  
 One works 855 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)
 Neither works 144 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 1.3 (0.6–2.8)
 Don’t know 74 1.7* (1.0–2.8) 2.1 (0.9–4.7)
Child and parents’ birth country      
 All born in Sweden 3145 1.0   1.0  
 Child born in Sweden and at least one parent born outside Sweden 745 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 1.3 (0.9–2.0)
 All born outside Sweden 439 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 1.5 (0.9–2.3)
Living situation      
 Live with at least one parent 4179 1.0   1.0  
 Live away from parents 150 1.5* (1.0–2.1) 1.9* (1.1–3.4)
Grades      
 Not failing any subjects 3157 1.0   1.0  
 Failing at least one subject 1046 1.1 (0.95–1.3) 2.0** (1.5–2.7)
  1. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005