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Table 1 Empirical studies conducted in relation to gambling among Malaysians

From: Gambling participation and policies in Malaysia

Authors/Title Design Participants Findings
Tan et al. (2010) “Socio-demographic determinants of gambling participation and expenditures: Evidence from Malaysia” Analysed pre-existing data from the 2004–2005 Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey from Malaysian Department of Statistics
Stratified multistage with area probability sampling method
Examined total monthly expenditures on gambling activities
N = 6117 non-Muslim households (3200 Chinese, 810 Indians, 2107 other ethnicities) with an average income of RM3065 Socio-demographic factors associated with higher level of gambling expenditures are Chinese, affluent, paternal-headed, younger and non-white collar households
Education and age affect gambling expenditures among Chinese households
Higher income and paternal households predicted higher gambling expenditures
White-collar Chinese and Indian households have lower gambling probabilities
Yoong et al. (2013) “This is not gambling but gaming: Methods of promoting a lottery gaming company in a Malaysian daily” Critical discourse analysis of articles published in a Malaysian newspaper on a lottery gaming company
Qualitative research—Fairclough’s framework of analysis
Not applicable (used published materials as data) Charity activities used as false positive associations with lottery company’s gambling activities
Journalistic and reporting integrity of the local daily are questionable
Endorsements by influential individuals as a positive association
Winnings published regularly can impact the perception of a high probability of striking a win through lottery, which can be misleading to readers
Ndubisi et al. (2012) “Ethical ideologies, perceived gambling value, and gambling commitment: An Asian perspective” Relationship marketing paradigm
Field survey of customers in a leading Asian gambling establishment over 3 weeks
Evaluated inter-relationships between ethical ideology, gambling commitment and perceived gambling value
N = 382 customers (50.8 % males, 49.2 % females; 80 % Chinese, 20 % non-Chinese; 2.1 % Muslims, 97.9 % Muslims; 41.6 % low income, 59.4 % middle to high income) Patrons with relativist ethical ideologies were more committed to gambling as compared to idealist ideologies
Negative association between idealism and perceived gambling value
Positive association between relativism and perceived gambling value
Perceived gambling value moderates: (1) the negative association between idealism and gambling commitment, and (2) the positive association between relativism and commitment
Sawari et al. (2010) “On the question of gambling in giving prizes to the holders of savings certificates: An Islamic analysis on Malaysian practice” Qualitative research—content analysis of Islamic Syari’ah literature and interviews
Investigated the Islamic legality of prize-giving practices through monthly draws to selected holders of a savings account in a National Savings Bank of Malaysia
Not specified in the article In Syari’ah law, gambling and retaining revenues gained through any form of gambling is prohibited
Personal savings certificate (PSC) is not associated with gambling under Syari’ah due to the winning and losing payout ratio
Tan et al. (2009) “The demand for vices in Malaysia: An ethnic comparison using household expenditure data” Analysed pre-existing data from the 2004–2005 Malaysian Household Expenditure Survey
Econometric estimation of a trivariate Tobit system to examine the demand for vices (tobacco, alcohol and gambling)
N = 14,082 households (37.57 % reported tobacco expenditures, 7.87 % alcohol, 7.46 % gambling expenditures) Higher education predicted lower expenditures on vices
White-collar headed households are less likely to smoke
Higher disposable income predicted higher tendency to spend on tobacco (Malay households) and all vices (Chinese and all other ethnicities)
Male-headed households spend more on vices as compared to female-headed households
Tudin and Woon (2012) “Factors influencing individuals’ gambling behaviour: A case study in Malaysia” Convenience sampling survey of customers in Casino de Genting, Malaysia
Examined demographics, gambling behaviour and factors contributing to gambling decisions (i.e., marketing activities, sociocultural environment and psychological variables)
N = 200 participants above 19 years (71.5 % Malaysians, 52.5 % male) Marketing activities (promotions, services, positioning and winnings) predicted higher gambling behaviour
In this study, psychological variables (motivation, personality, perception, cognitions) did not significantly predict gambling behaviour. This result can be attributed to small sample size and weaknesses in data analysis methods.
Choong et al. (2014) “The experience of recovering gamblers in Malaysia: A phenomenological study” Qualitative analyses on interviews conducted with treatment seeking gamblers N = 10 (phenomenological analysis on recovering gamblers) Family support is essential in the recovery from gambling disorder
A reduction in enabling behaviours (e.g., helping gambler to pay off debts) is a key turning point for gambling recovery
Loft and Loo (2014) “Understanding the Mechanisms Underlying Gambling Behaviour and Sleep” Quantitative analyses on sleep difficulty, sleep habits, arousability, self-regulatory capacity and problem gambling severity N = 59 (treatment seeking gamblers) Self-regulatory capacity mediates the relationship between problem gambling and sleep difficulty
Self-regulatory capacity is also a significant mediator between problem gambling and negative sleep habits
Arousability predicted sleep difficulty and negative sleep habits