Skip to main content

Table 4 Gender differences of the GRCS-J

From: Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-J)

  Male Female   
  (n = 351) (n = 185) t value d (95% CI)
GRCS-J 57.32 (26.39) 45.00 (20.19) 6.02* 0.50 (0.32 to 0.69)
GRCS-J-IS 8.49 (4.81) 7.04 (4.07) 3.69* 0.31 (0.14 to 0.50)
GRCS-J-IB 10.72 (6.31) 8.16 (5.09) 5.10* 0.43 (0.25 to 0.61)
GRCS-J-PC 15.92 (7.06) 13.04 (6.18) 4.88* 0.43 (0.25 to 0.61)
GRCS-J-GE 10.54 (5.19) 7.98 (4.12) 6.23* 0.53 (0.35 to 0.71)
GRCS-J-IC 11.65 (7.21) 8.78 (4.83) 5.47* 0.44 (0.26 to 0.62)
  1. Note: GRCS-J the Japanese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, CI confidence interval, IS perceived inability to stop gambling, IB interpretative bias, GE gambling expectancies, PC predictive control, IC illusion of control, *p < .05.