Gambling Behavior Among Underage Adolescents in Hong Kong
Asian Journal of Gambling Issues and Public Healthvolume 1, pages47–60 (2010)
This study examined the prevalence of gambling involvement and pathological gambling among students aged 12 to 17 years in Hong Kong, and investigated the correlates of problem gambling. The DSM-IV-MR-J was administered to 1,121 students. The response rate was 89.3%. Sixty percent of the participants gambled in the previous year, 69% were infrequent players who bet less than 4 times a month, and 4.8% gambled at least once a day. Most (89.8%) wagered less than HK$100 a week, only 3.1% staked over HK$500, and 24% borrowed money to finance their gambling activities. The majority (78.6%) had started gambling before the age of 15 years. One-fifth (21.5%) transferred gambling payments at the betting venues, 44.7% were assisted by their parents and 19.7% were helped by peers. Using the DSM-IV criteria, 3.4% and 1.8% of the participants could be classified as pathological and problem gamblers, respectively. Significant gender (χ2(1)=8.3, p < 0.01) and age differences (χ2(7)=21, p < 0.01) were noted for such gambling addiction. Pathological and problem gambling were significantly correlated with age (r= 0.44, p < 0.01), gambling frequency (r= 0.41, p < 0.001), gender (r= 0.33, p < 0.01), early initiation (r= −0.31, p < 0.05), psychiatric disturbances (r= 0.25, p < 0.001), as well as parents (r= 0.21, p < 0.01) and peers (r= 0.18, p < 0.05) having gambling problems. The findings have implications for preventive initiatives.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Adlaf, E. M., & Ialomiteanu, A. (1999). Prevalence of problem gambling in adolescents: Findings from the 1999 Ontario Students Drug Use Survey. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 752–755.
Banks, M. H., Clegg, C. W., Jackson, P. R., Kemp, N. J., Stafford, E. M., & Wall, T. D. (1980). The use of the General Health Questionnaire as an indicator of mental health in occupational studies. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 187–194.
Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2005). Further evidence concerning the prevalence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Australia: A study of the ACT. International Gambling Studies, 5, 209–228.
Derevensky, J., & Gillespie, M. (2005). Keynote address: Gambling in Canada eCommunity. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3, 3–14.
Desai, R. A., Maciejewski, P. K., Pantalon, M. V., & Potenza, M. N. (2005). Gender differences in adolescent gambling. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17, 249–258.
Dickson, L., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta R. (2004). Harm reduction for the prevention of youth gambling problems: Lessons learned from adolescent high-risk prevention programs. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 233–263.
Felsher, J., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2003). Parental influences and social modeling of youth lottery participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13, 361–377.
Fisher, S. E. (1993). Gambling and pathological gambling in adolescence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 277–287.
Fisher, S. E. (1999). A prevalence study of gambling and problem gambling in British adolescents. Addiction Research, 7, 509–538.
Fisher, S. E. (2000). Developing the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria to identify adolescent problem gambling in non-clinical populations. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 253–273.
Gillespie, M. A. M., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2007). Adolescent problem gambling: Developing a gambling expectancy instrument. Journal of Gambling Issues, 19, 51–68.
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. Maudsley Monograph No. 21. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldberg, D. P., Gater, R., Sartorius, N., Ustun, T. B., Piccinelli, M., Gureje, O., & Rutter, C. (1997). The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general health care. Psychological Medicine, 27, 191–197.
Griffiths, M. D. (1989). Gambling in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 66–83.
Griffiths, M. D. (1991). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 53–73.
Griffiths, M. D. (1995). Adolescent gambling. London: Routledge.
Griffiths, M. D. (1999). Gambling technologies: Prospects for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 265–283.
Griffiths, M. D. (2002). Gambling and gaming addictions in adolescence. Oxford: British Psychological Society, Blackwells.
Griffiths, M. D., & Wood, R. T. (2000). Risk factors in adolescence: The case of gambling, video game playing, and the Internet. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 375–394.
Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 179–192.
Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998a). Adolescent gambling behavior: A prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 319–345.
Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998b). An empirical examination of Jacobs’ General Theory of Addictions: Do adolescent gamblers ft the theory? Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 17–49.
Hodge, G. R. (1994). Adolescent anxiety, distress and coping: A study of senior school students and higher school certificate examination stress. Doctor of Education Thesis: The University of New South Wales.
Hong Kong Polytechnic University. (2001). A study on Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Jacobs, D. F. (1993). A review of juvenile gambling in the United States. In W. R. Eadington, & J. A. Cornelius (Eds.). Gambling behavior and problem gambling (pp. 431–441). Reno, UV: University of Nevada Press.
Jacobs, D. F. (2000). Juvenile gambling in North America: An analysis of long-term trends, future prospects. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 119–152.
Jacobs, D. F. (2004). Youth gambling in North America: Long term trends, future prospects. In J. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Developmental and applied perspectives (pp. 1–26). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Ladouceur, R., Dubé, D., & Bujold, A. (1994). Prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among college students in the Quebec metropolitan area. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 289–293.
Ladouceur, R., & Mireault, C. (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 3–12.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Rohling, M. L. (2004). Individual, family, and peer correlates of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 23–46.
Moore, S. M., & Ohtsuka, K. (1997). Gambling activities of young Australians: Developing a model of behaviour. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 207–236.
National Research Council. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nower, L., Gupta, R., Blaszczynski, A., & Derevensky, J. (2004). Suicidality and depression among youth gamblers: A preliminary examination of three studies. International Gambling Studies, 4, 69–80.
Olason, D. T., Skarphedinsson, G. A., Jonsdottir, J. E., Mikaelsson, M., & Gretarsson, S. (2006). Prevalence estimates of gambling and problem gambling among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Reykjavik: An examination of correlates of problem gambling and different accessibility to electronic gambling machines in Iceland. Journal of Gambling Issues, 18, 39–55.
Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (1996). Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 193–214.
Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 168–172.
Stinchfield, R. D., & Winters, K. C. (1998). Gambling and problem gambling among youth. Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, 556, 172–185.
Turchi, R. M., & Derevensky, J. L. (2006). Youth gambling: Not a safe bet. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 18, 454–458.
University of Hong Kong. (2005). A study on Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Ladouceur, R., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Gambling, delinquency and drug use during adolescence: Mutual influences and common risk factors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 171–190.
Volberg, R., & Moore, W. (1999). Gambling and problem gambling among adolescents in Washington State: A six-year replication study, 1993–1999. Report to the Washington State Lottery. Albany, New York: Gemini Research.
Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M. C., & Hoffman, J. H. (2008). The prevalence of problem gambling among U.S. adolescents and young adults: Results from a national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 119–133.
Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Botzet, A., & Anderson, N. (2002). A prospective study of youth gambling behaviors. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 3–9.
Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Fulkerson, J. (1993a). Towards the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 63–84.
Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Fulkerson, J. (1993b). Patterns and characteristics of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 371–386.
Wong, I. L. K. (2006). A study of gambling and problem gambling among high school students. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Wong, I. L. K. (2010). Internet gambling: A school-based survey among Macau students. Social Behavior and Personality, 38, 365–372.
Wong, I. L. K., & So, M. T. (2004). A study of adolescent gambling behavior. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (1998). The acquisition, development and maintenance of lottery and scratchcard gambling in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 265–273.
Wynne, H., Smith, G., & Jacobs, D. (1996). Adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission.