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Table 3 Unadjusted associations between reported gambling problems and CALD-related variables

From: Gambling problems amongst the CALD population of Australia: hidden, visible or not a problem?

  2002 2006
  OR (95% CI) Reported gambling problems% (SE) OR (95% CI) Reported gambling problems% (SE)
CALD status
 Non-CALD (p = 0.758) 1.00 3.5 (0.2) (p = 0.002) 1.00 3.5 (0.3)
 CALD 0.94 (0.64-1.39) 3.3 (0.6) 0.38 (0.21-0.68) 1.3 (0.4)
Country of birth and language
 Australia and English at home (p = 0.080) 1.00 3.6 (0.2) (p = 0.017) 1.00 3.3 (0.2)
 Australia and not English at home 1.74 (0.85-3.59) 6.1 (1.7) 2.14 (0.95-4.85) 6.7 (2.4)
 Overseas & English at home 0.69 (0.51-0.93) 2.5 (0.4) 1.13 (0.71-1.80) 3.7 (0.7)
 Overseas & not English at home1 0.92 (0.61-1.38) 3.3 (0.6) 0.40 (0.23-0.72) 1.3 (0.4)
Language region2
 Australia (p = 0.252) 1.00 3.4 (0.2) (p = 0.067) 1.00 3.3 (0.2)
 North European 0.52 (0.01-41.2) 1.8 (1.6) 1.72 (0.37-7.97) 5.6 (3.2)
 South/East European 1.39 (0.73-2.64) 4.6 (1.2) 0.94 (0.44-1.97) 3.1 (1.0)
 South-west Asian 2.41 (1.10-5.27) 7.8 (2.6) 0.65 (0.17-2.45) 2.2 (1.2)
 South/South-east/East Asian 0.45 (0.19-1.09) 1.6 (0.6) 0.14 (0.04-0.54) 0.5 (0.2)
 Other language region 1.70 (0.51-5.71) 5.6 (2.8) 2.87 (0.79-10.4) 9.0 (4.5)
Proficiency in English
 Speaks English at home (p = 0.334) 1.00 3.4 (0.2) (p = 0.015) 1.00 3.3 (0.2)
 Very well 1.38 (0.84-2.26) 4.6 (0.9) 1.15 (0.64-2.07) 3.8 (1.0)
 Well/not well/none 0.92 (0.58-1.46) 3.1 (0.7) 0.30 (0.14-0.65) 1.0 (0.4)
Region of birth2
 Australia (p = 0.531) 1.00 3.7 (0.2) 1.34 (0.91-1.97) 3.4 (0.3)
 Europe 0.73 (0.45-1.18) 2.7 (0.6) 0.71 (0.48-1.04) 2.4 (0.4)
 Africa/Middle East 0.95 (0.44-2.07) 3.5 (1.3) 0.84 (0.36-1.99) 2.7 (1.1)
 North/South/East Asia 0.53 (0.22-1.28) 2.0 (0.8) 0.61 (0.23-1.60) 2.0 (0.8)
 India/North/West Asia 0.49 (0.04-5.69) 1.9 (1.4) ne 0.4 (0.4)
 New Zealand/Oceania 1.35 (0.73-2.50) 4.9 (1.3) 2.16 (1.04-4.49) 6.4 (2.0)
 Americas/not stated 0.85 (0.18-3.98) 3.2 (1.9) 0.29 (0.02-4.15) 1.0 (0.7)
Time in Australia
 Born in Australia (p = 0.354) 1.00 3.7 (0.2) (p = 0.266) 1.00 3.4 (0.3)
 Recent (2001-2002/2006) 0.64 (0.10-3.95) 2.4 (1.6) 0.66 (0.22-2.02) 2.3 (1.1)
 Medium (1991–2000) 0.61 (0.29-1.27) 2.3 (0.7) 1.22 (0.67-2.22) 4.1 (1.1)
 Long-term (before 1991) 0.82 (0.58-1.16) 3.0 (0.5) 0.65 (0.41-1.03) 2.2 (0.4)
  1. NOTES: Bold font indicates statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05).
  2. 1 This category is the same as the CALD group in the CALD status variable.
  3. 2 For 2006 data, the small sample size restricted the bivariate analysis, so odds ratios for Region of Birth are calculated for individual regions, with the reference category being all other regions including Australia.
  4. ne = Not estimable due to small sample size for this group.